Perfection Of Land Transactions And Titles In Nigeria Post-Covid 19: Prospects And Challenges

Publication Information

Journal Title: Commonwealth Law Review Journal
Author(s): Ibrahim Mohammed, Abigail Benjamin Kahuwai & Chigozie Umenzekwe
Published On: 15/05/2023
Volume: 9
First Page: 184
Last Page: 195
ISSN: 2581-3382
Publisher: The Law Brigade Publisher

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Ibrahim Mohammed, Abigail Benjamin Kahuwai & Chigozie Umenzekwe, Perfection Of Land Transactions And Titles In Nigeria Post-Covid 19: Prospects And Challenges, Volume 9, Commonwealth Law Review Journal, 184-195, Published on 15/05/2023, Available at


The SARS-CoV 2, commonly known as coronavirus or COVID 19, belongs to the category of viruses that may cause illness and are easily transmitted between humans as well as between humans and animals. The viruses cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). Covid-19 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans until its breakout in China in December, 2019. The common symptoms of the virus include shortness of breath and breathing difficulties, fever, dry cough and tiredness, nasal congestion, sore throat, diarrhoea, headache, loss of taste or smell, a rash on skin or discoloration of fingers or toes. In severe cases, the virus can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death.[i] The symptoms may take up to fourteen days, after exposure, to manifest. Preventive measures include respiratory hygiene like covering the mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue when coughing or sneezing, washing of the hands using soap and water or an alcohol-based sanitizer, social distancing and avoiding close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms.[ii] Although infected persons are given medications, it is mostly to boost their immune system as there is presently no specific treatment or cure for the disease. There are however, ongoing clinical trials on medications that would, hopefully be effective for the treatment or management of the disease.[iii]

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is said to be the worst global health crisis since the Second World War[iv] and its impact transcends human health as it has also affected socio-economic development globally. In view of the alarming rate of person-to-person transmission of the deadly virus and number of deaths, countries all over the world were compelled to take unprecedented number of both proactive and reactive strategies to mitigate the risk and combat the unique challenges posed by the virus. Some of the measures adopted by countries include total and partial lockdowns, social distancing, mandatory use of facemasks and hand sanitizers, testing and isolation as well as halting non-essential services. These containment measures devastatingly affected economic activities resulting in drastic fall in government revenue, stagnation of commercial activities, loss of jobs in countries including Nigeria. Even before the outbreak, countries around the world, especially developing countries like Nigeria, were grappling with weak economic situations hence the pandemic had therefore aggravated the economic predicament.[v] Social distancing, as one of the measures of containing the spread of the virus in Nigeria, affected many government businesses and transactions. Many government offices including land registries were closed down and this made physical or manual perfection of land titles almost impossible during the period.

This paper examines the prospects and challenges of electronic perfection of title documents in land transactions in Nigeria as alternative to the common physical system that require an interface between the parties and government officials.

[i] About Covid-9 accessed on 7-11-2022

[ii] Covid-19 Nigeria  accessed on 8-11-2022

[iii] Ibid

[iv]About Covid-19  . accessed on 8-11-2022         

[v] Chukwuka Onyekwena and Mma Amara Ekeruche  ‘Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Nigerian economy’  accessed on 11-11-2022

Keywords: Post-Covid-19, E-perfection, land transactions, land titles, land administration in Nigeria

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